The festivities in honor of Nuestra Señora del Carmen are closely linked with the Guelaguetza Festival. This is due to the fact that when the Spaniards arrived in Oaxaca, an indigenous celebration during these days was already in place. To make the task easier, the evangelizers decided to reconcile a Christian celebration during these days, when the indigenous usually performed their rites. From there emerged the Temples of Carmen Alto and Carmen Bajo. Oaxaca is the only city that has two churches dedicated to this patron.
El Templo del Carmen Bajo is a building dating back to the 16th century, that was first called "Tears of St. Peter" and "Sorrow". Since its construction it was conceived as a house of prayer for the Oaxacan populace. When it was consecrated to Our Lady of Carmen, it received the name that it holds today. In this way it could be distinguished from the upper Carmen Church that served as a house of prayer for the royals. It was subsequently destroyed by a fire and rebuilt almost completely, so that the temple that we know today is not the original. It is of simple elements in its interior, which contrast with the exterior architecture of large and rich finishes.