The congregation of St. Philip Neri appeared in Oaxaca in 1661 as an offshoot of the former Congregation of the Oratory.
The fabrication of the church and attached houses started in 1733, and the work was completed on January 17 1773, at which Bishop Anselmo Miguel Angel Alvarez de Abreu consecrated the church under the advocation of the Virgen del Patrocinio and the founder of the congregation of St. Philip Neri.
Once the institution functioned no longer in the late 18th century, the church began to be administered by the secular clergy.
In 1915, under the control of the federal government, the lattice work was placed in the atrium and later, around 1921, the painting of the vaulted domes was elaborated. On November 30, 1933 the temple was declared a historic monument by the INAH.
The Templo de San Felipe Neri is an extraordinary example of Baroque in the late 17th century, which serves as a specific example in how to distinguish within the same building two architectural temperaments: the austere, conservative and observant of canonic composition, and the ornate and imaginative which seems to have no rule or limit.
In the central part of the facade, the image of San Felipe stands out. The church has several golden altarpieces, some of which are considered to be the most impressive in town.
In 1841 the marriage of Don Benito Juárez Garia with Doña Margarita Maza was held in this temple.